Posted in English, Portuguese

Some more corrected texts

Here are a few more texts from the Writestreakpt subreddit with some notes. Thanks as ever to Teafvigoli and Dani Morgenstern for the corrections.

First off, James Bond. It’s my second time writing about this topic. I’m obviously obsessed. I should start a campaign. #jamesBondSoOld

Streak 007
Na minha voltinha pelas avenidas do Twitter nesta madrugada outonal, percebi que estamos novamente a falar sobre a questão de atores negros (como o Idris Elba) a protagonizar personagens brancos (como o Comandante James Bond do serviço secreto)

Sou velho e falta-me a paciência para os apoiantes* dos dois lados desta questão:
Por um lado: "Olha pá, os livros (que já li, acredita!) descrevem um homem branco. É branco"
Por outro lado: "O público é cada vez mais jovem e cada vez mais diverso. Precisamos de um Bond jovem e mais (gay/femino/negro/qualquer group demográfico)"

Sou fã de livros e até certo ponto concordo com o primeiro grupo. Mas eu realmente li alguns livros de Ian Fleming e sei que o protagonista tinha lutado na segunda guerra mundial antes de se tornar espião. Em 2021 o gajo deve ter mais de 100 anos! Portanto este raciocínio de vamos-seguir-os-livros só faz sentido se os filmes todos se desenrolassem nos anos cinquenta/sessenta. (E eu asistiria a um filme desses! Soa fixe!)
Entretanto sugiro que os novos filmes tomem uma nova direção. Deixemos o Bond em paz para usufruir da sua reforma. Criemos novos agentes de géneros e raças diversas e vamos aproveitar algo novo!

*=i originally wrote “para os dois lados” and it was corrected to “para ver os dois lados”. Hm, OK, I guess my original wording isn’t good Portuguese but the second one isn’t quite right: it’s not that I don’t have patience to see the argument from both sides, I’m just annoyed by the way the question gets turned into a sort of litmus teat of patriotism vs iconoclasm. So I changed it to “don’t have patience for the supporters of either side”. I hope this is better but I haven’t gone back to pester the person who made the corrections.

The next uses a sentence I found in my book as a model, trying to make new sentences in the same format, using the “gerundio”

Três frases segundo um modelo

Modelo
"A lua cheia abraçava o rio Tejo, projectando sobre ele tons frios e leitosos" (c19, "Anjos" de Carol Silva)

1

"A luz do sol banhava as árvores, iluminando-as e fazendo abrir as primeiras flores da primavera"

2

"A terra abanava furiosamente, abalando as torres do castelo e partindo as paredes de Lisboa"*

3

"O chefe gritava de raiva, borrifando os funcionários todos com saliva**"

*Although this isn’t wrong the corrector suggested “fazendo ruir os muros”. Parede does mean wall but it’s just a wall dividing one room from another inside the house, whereas muro is the wall dividing inside from outside: so the external wall of a house, a city wall, the Berlin Wall. Ruir means crumble, so it’s a good one in this context.

**also not wrong but got another suggested change: “cobrindo os funcionários de gafanhotos”. This is intriguing – so gafanhotos means grasshoppers but can also mean flecks of spit? Not according to priberam or the Dicionário Informal but I did manage to track down some examples like here for example. Excellent! I’m definitely using that at the next chance I get! “Baba” is a less formal word for drool/saliva too, so I probably should have thought to use that.

Jonathan Groff as King George III drool-singing
Cobrindo os revolucionários de gafanhotos
Posted in English

Embiggification

If there’s one thing Portugal is not, it’s Texas. Portugal is Portugal, Texas is Texas. How many times must I repeat this, people?

While Texas prides itself on everything being bigger there, european portuguese uses a lot of diminutive endings “inho” and “inha”, at least in conversational use. This doesn’t usually mean the thing they’re talking about is actually small (although it might be), it’s just a way of speaking, and it makes the sentence sound more natural and polished. The opposite phenomenon, augmentative endings, are rarer and the way they are formed is more variable than the diminutive, so they need a little more work to remember. So… let’s Texanise our Portuguese for a bit and look at this list “(from “A Actualidade em Português”)

Where the word is highlighted in red, the augmented form has changed gender from feminine to masculine, and blue highlighting indicates the opposite. Predictably, the former is more common than the latter.

StandardTranslationAugmentedTranslation
CasaHouseCasarãoBig house
RochaRockRochedoBig rock
BarulhoNoiseBarulhãoBig noise*
VozVoiceVozeirão(Someone who has a) loud voice
PortaDoorPortãoBig door, main door of a building
SalaRoomSalãoBig room especially in a commercial space – eg, dance hall or showroom
FacaKnifeFacalhão/Facão**Big knife, machete
CamisolaJumperCamisolãoBig jumper
HomemManHomenzarrãoLarge man
MulherWomanMulheronaLarge woman
BocaMouthBoqueirãoLarge mouth (has several geographical uses – eg a river mouth, hole in the ground, gap between mountains)
PratoPlatePratalhãoBig plate, dish
ChuvaRainChuvadaDownpour
CadeiraChairCadeirãoBig chair
CopoDrinking glassCopãoBig drinking glass
PeitoChestPeitaça/Peitaço***Big/strong chest
SábioWise personSabichão****Great, wise one
PataPaw, hoof, animal footPatorraBig paw, big foot
CãoDogCãozarrãoBig dog
RapazBoyRapagão/RapazãoChonky Boi, absolute unit

*=This one is in the book but not in Priberam so I guess not standard.

**=Faca has two forms, one of which stays feminine and the other switches to masculine. The first is the one given in the book, but the second is definitely used and is given in priberam

***=Peito has two forms, one feminine and one masculine. Despite what you might think, that’s not because one is used for a woman’s chest and one for a man’s; they’re synonyms. Peitaça is more common and can be used for a man’s swole pecs without implying he has a nice rack, and that makes it interesting because it’s the only example where the supersizing results in a word going from masculine to feminine. Neither of them seems particularly common though, and in fact if you google it you’ll mostly find brazilian websites with ornate breastplates, which isn’t a meaning given in Priberam so I guess it must be specific to the Brazilian variant

****=Informal, often ironic, mocking

Posted in English

A Próclise, A Mesóclise e a Ênclise e o Rock ‘n’ Roll

Próclise, Mesóclise and Ênclise are words used in grammar lessons to describe the position of the adverb relative to the verb. In Brasil, Próclise is far more common than either of the other two, but in Portugal it’s the exception rather than the rule, These notes are taken from a Ciberdúvidas post.

Próclise

The pronoun goes before the verb

  1. After certain common adverbs such as bem, mal, ainda, já, talvez, apenas, também, não, sempre, só (according to Wikipedia, “Hoje” is a pronoun that fits this bill too, believe it or not!)
    • Sempre o vejo
    • Ainda me rio quando penso nisso.
    • Hoje me convidarão para a solenidade de posse da nova directoria
  2. After indefinite subjects such as “ambos” or “alguns”
    • Ambos o odeiam
  3. In subordinate clauses
    • Quando a ouvi, não acreditei
  4. In coordinate clauses – basically where you’ve referred to a thing in a sentence already, then you use a conjunction like “and”, “but” or “or” to join to another clause where you refer to it again
    • Ou tens o bolo ou o comes.
  5. Where the subject of the verb goes after the verb it wold be crowded to have the object pronoun there too
    • Isso te digo eu

Mesóclise

The pronoun goes inside the verb like an insane pronoun sandwich, which seems… peculiar…. until you realise that it was originally because the future and conditional tenses were made up of the infinitive and a form of “havere” the version of latin that eventually became the portuguese language. Actually, it’s still peculiar, but knowing the reason behind it is some consolation, I suppose.

  1. Future tense [where none of the próclise conditions apply]
    • Contar-lhe-ia uma história
    • Comê-lo-ei
    • BUT Quando sairmos do UE, não o arrependerá?
  2. Conditional tense
    • Dar-lhe-ia
    • BUT Se encontrasse Boris Johnson, nao lhe falaria

 

Ênclise

The pronoun goes after the verb

  1. Basically
  2. All
  3. Other
  4. Times
Posted in English, Portuguese

Já and Ainda

Another one I get wrong from time to time: Vamos a isso!

Translating from this question on Ciberdúvidas: Somos três alunos estrangeiros a estudar na Univ. do Minho. A pergunta é: qual a diferença na utilização de já e de ainda?

1. “Já” “ainda” are adverbs. I usually think of já as meaning “already” and “ainda” as “still”, but já has quite a few other meanings to do with immediacy, so it can be translated as “still” or “now” in some contexts.

a) When a question contains the word “já” and you want to reply in the affirmative, you always use “já” in the reply. If you want to reply in the negative, use “ainda não”.

“Já leste este romance?” (Have you read this book already?)

  • “Sim, já o li.” (“Yes, I’ve already read it”)
  • “Já, sim.”
  • “Já.”
  • “Não, ainda não o li.” (“No, I still haven’t read it”)
  • “Não, ainda não.”
  • “Ainda não.”

b) Likewise, a question that contains “ainda” is answered with “ainda” if it’s positive or “já não” if not
“Ainda vais sair?” (Are you still going to go out?)

  • “Sim, ainda vou.” (Yes, I’m still going to”)
  • “Sim, vou.”
  • “Não, já não vou.” (No, I’m not going any more)
  • “Não, já não.”
  • “Já não.”

2. In plain speech, “ainda” can have the following meanings
a) up to the current time (english: “still”)
“Ele ainda não voltou.”
“Este velho carro ainda participa em corridas.”

b) up to that time (english: “still” again but about something in the past)
“Quando o filho nasceu, ele ainda morava em Lisboa.”

c) One day in the future
“Tu ainda hás-de ser muito feliz.”

d) Precisely, exactly
“Ainda ontem o vi.”

e) Also, furthermore (cf “ainda por cima”)
“Fui jantar, comi muito bem e ainda me diverti com a conversa do Miguel.”

f) Finally
“Tenho de arrumar a casa, ir às compras e, ainda, fazer o jantar.”

g) At least (surprised me but of course, we use “still” in this way in english too: “A meteior is about to strike the earth… still, mustn’t grumble, at least we won’t have to hear any more about Brexit”)
“Ainda se ele marcasse um golo, o dinheiro era bem gasto, mas assim…”

3. “Já” on the other hand, has the following meanings:

a) Now, at the moment
“O menino já sabe ler.”
“O pai já não tem paciência.”

b) Immediately, without delay
“Vou-me já embora.”
“Faz já isso!”

c) Before now, already
“Ele já tinha comido.”
“Eu já tinha visto este filme.”

d) Previously, before that time
“Eu já sabia que isso ia acontecer.”